Parmesan Gougeres Cheese Puffs (Gluten-free or Wheat)

By Sally Cameron on April 24, 2012

Appetizers, Bakery and Baking, Gluten-Free

The irresistible French cheese puffs called gougeres (goo-zhare), made guten-free. They are great with a glass of wine. I make mine with lots of Parmesan cheese and finely chopped chives. If the French name is too difficult, call them what I do – Parmesan puffs.  Easy to make, but impressive – Parmesan Gougeres Cheese Puffs. And if you are not gluten-free, I have notes for wheat flour too. 

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How to Make Parmesan Gougeres Cheese Puffs

Do you remember the first time you bravely attempted a new technique or a new recipe? I still remember making gougere (goo-zhare) for the first time. It was strange how the pastry dough came together, but it worked beautifully in the end. A triumph.

The formal name for this pastry dough is choux (shoo) pastry or pate a choux (pot-ah-shoo). Bring milk and butter to a boil, dump in flour, and stir like mad until the dough pulls away from the side of the pan. Add eggs, one at a time and again, stir like mad until they are well incorporated and the dough smooths out.

The pastry will look odd while you stir. At first it looks curdled and slippery from the eggs and you wonder if it will come together. Suddenly it does, and forms a smooth pastry dough.

Add cheese and chives, then stir some more.  You’ll have a thick, savory dough to portion out and bake.

I’ve piped them and dropped dollops with spoons in the past. Now I use what’s called a disher.

Dishers – A Handy Little Tool

A disher is a tool I can’t live without in my kitchen. I have 5-6 sizes of them in various sizes for various tasks. They make portion control and handling ingredients easy. For small puffs I use a #40 disher that is 1 ½” across. For truly bite-sized puffs, use the #60.

Flour Options: Wheat or Gluten-free

I tested three types of flour: organic white whole wheat, organic whole wheat pastry, and a gluten-free blend called Cup4Cup. All three came out great. Pastry flour is a soft wheat which contains less gluten and provides a more tender baked good.

Note – Since this post published, I have come up with my own GF blend. See notes below. That is what I now use. The blend is below. There are also many more gluten-free flours blends on the market.

For Gluten-Free Bakers

For gluten-free gougere I tested with a pre-made blend, Cup4Cup (C4C) gluten-free flour. The dough looks little different as it forms but the process is the same. The gougere came out great. After three test batches, here are the changes from the standard recipe.

Substitute 1/2 cup (72 grams) of the C4C for the regular flour and turn oven down to 350 degrees (177 C). Bake until just golden. Time will depend on your ovens as they can vary. Note that Bob’s Red Mill also makes a great gluten-free flour blend, available everywhere. The gluten-free batch did not puff  as much as did the wheat gougere, but they tasted terrific and will be appreciated by anyone following a gluten-free diet.

My last and best batch took about 20-25 minutes. They were golden on the outside and done but a tiny bit moist on the inside. Gluten-free flours based on cornstarch (as is C4C) may result in baked goods that dry out a little more quickly. That little bit of moistness is probably good. The next day, they were still perfect.

My Gluten-Free Blend

My flour blend mixes brown rice, sweet rice, and quinoa flours plus cornstarch and tapioca. For accuracy, you will need a digital scale to blend your flours. With a digital scale, weigh out 40 grams brown rice flour, 35 grams sweet rice flour, 25 grams quinoa flour, 20 grams cornstarch and 24 grams tapioca flour. When measuring use the tare feature, it’s faster. Whisk together until well blended. I use all Bobs Red Mill flours. This makes enough for several batches of gougeres. 

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Parmesan Gougeres Cheese Puffs

These smell so good when they are baking you will have a hard time not devouring them as soon as they come out of the oven. Small ones are great alongside a glass of wine. Choose from four flour options: white whole wheat, whole wheat pastry, gluten-free pre-made blend or homemade gluten-free blend (see note at end). I prefer organic flours for baking. You’ll need baking parchment for this recipe. Find the tool called a disher on Amazon, or use a tablespoon.
Course Appetizer
Cuisine French
Keyword Gougere, Puffs
Prep Time 15 minutes
Cook Time 25 minutes
Total Time 40 minutes
Servings 6 at 2 per person


  • Baking parchment
  • #40 disher (looks like an ice cream scooper with a spring handle) optional


  • 2 ounces   unsalted butter 57 grams
  • 1/2 cup milk 120 ml
  • 1/2 cup white whole wheat flour SEE GF OPTION BElOW
  • 1 pinch sea salt
  • 2 large eggs
  • 2 ounces finely grated Parmesan cheese plus extra to top if desired
  • 1 tablespoon finely chopped chives


  • Ready all ingredients and tools before you start as this goes quickly. Pre-heat oven to 400° or 350° for gluten-free flours. Line a rimmed baking sheet with parchment paper.
  • Place butter in a medium saucepan and melt over low heat. When butter is melted, add the milk, turn heat to high and bring to a boil. When the milk and butter get to a full boil, dump in the flour and salt all at once. Turn heat down to medium-low and stir like mad with a wooden spoon. Stir, beat and fold until the dough pulls away from the sides of the pan, 1-2 minutes. Remove the douggh to a medium bowl and cool 2 minutes, stirring occasionally (so the eggs do not scramble).
  • Add eggs, one at a time, stirring like mad after each one until completely incorporated. It will look like a slimy mess for the first minute but keep stirring. The dough will come together. Lastly stir in the cheese and chives.
  • With a #40 disher, piping bag with plain tip or tablespoon, drop portions of pastry onto parchment lined baking sheets (or use a silicone mat). Sprinkle a little extra Parmesan on top if desired. Bake for 20-25 minutes or until golden brown. Check the puffs early and watch them as ovens and timing vary. Allow puffs to stand for a few minutes after baking. Serve immediately or cool completely and place in an airtight container. Puffs can be made a day ahead and served at room temperature or warmed in the oven for a few minutes.


My Gluten-Free Flour Blend: With a digital scale, weigh out 40 grams brown rice flour, 35 grams sweet rice flour, 25 grams quinoa flour, 20 grams cornstarch and 24 grams tapioca flour. Whisk together until well blended. You can do it all in one bowl using the tare feature. I used all Bobs Red Mill flours. This makes enough for several batches of gougeres. 
Use 72 grams for whole wheat pastry flour or gluten-free flour blend.
  1. M G - April 30th, 2012

    I am SO MAKING these!!! Thanks for the tip. 🙂

    It seems there’s a lot of versatility to this recipe. I can add some diced chiles and pepper jack cheese too. 😉 Cali touch! 😉

    Also, rosemary, parsley..etc.


  2. Sally - April 30th, 2012

    The herbs sounds great, as do the pepperjack cheese instead of Parmesan, but be very careful with diced green chiles. You don’t want to add moisture to the dough. If you use fresh chiles sparingly, roasted, peeled an chopped, it might work. These are not biscuits. They are much lighter, and extra moisture could weigh them down or cause them to still be doughy on the inside. Please comment back and let us know what you do and how it comes out. I’d suggest you start with just pepperjack, as Gruyere is traditional.

  3. LP @dishclips - April 30th, 2012

    I love the step by step pictures. Makes the recipe comprehensible. Thanks for sharing!

  4. susan - May 23rd, 2012

    I am so all over these! These are gorgeous and I cannot wait to make these!!!

  5. Virginia Kahler-Anderson, aka HomeRearedChef - June 24th, 2012

    OMGosh! These things are phenomenal!! I have made these before, but actually haven’t in many years. And I just LOVE that you have given us a recipe for making them gluten free. I am saving this recipe of yours. Thank you very much. 🙂

    It is really awesome that Genie Grato Featured your post, or I would not have found this recipe for gluten free.


  6. Ashley - April 20th, 2013

    I made the gluten free version of these today. My husband and I couldn’t stop eating them! Thanks for sharing!

  7. Sally - April 20th, 2013

    Thanks Ashley! I just overhauled my moms 1956 banana bread recipe to be GF. Stay tuned! It will be out in a few days!

  8. Tera - July 13th, 2015

    Am I able to use all purpose flour?

  9. Sally Cameron - July 15th, 2015

    Hi Tera. I did not develop the recipe or test it with white all purpose flour. It should work I would think. Honestly, please try the white whole wheat flour. King Arthur is available in most stores or use Trader Joes White Whole Wheat. It’s better for you than refined white flour. Time to start getting away from refined white flours and products in general. They offer no nutritional value.

  10. Marci - October 13th, 2015

    I have large eggs. Any idea how many I would use?

  11. Sally Cameron - October 13th, 2015

    Hi Marci, 2 eggs. Hope you enjoy them!

  12. F morin - December 18th, 2019

    Perfect! Just made them!
    I’ll freeze them
    We’ll make them again,

  13. Sally Cameron - January 6th, 2020

    Love to hear that! They are yummy, and I think fun to make. Thanks for commenting.

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